Elderberries
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ElderberryNIC

This page provides access to information on the World Wide Web related to elderberry culture (Sambucus canadensis) primarily in the United States of America. It also includes an extensive bibliography of print resources on the culture of the plant, Sambucus canadensis.

For information about the AgNIC project and for online reference in other agricultural areas, please consult the AgNIC Partner Sites by Subject.

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Websites

Common Elderberry from Illinois Wildflowers.

Edible Landscaping, by Travis Beck and Martin F. Quigley, Department of Horticulture and Crop Science, The Ohio State University.

Elderberry, American elder (Sambucus canadensis) - Poisonous Plants of North Carolina

Elderberries - Black (American) Elderberry - Sambucus canadensis, Red (Scarlet) Elderberry - S. pubens, from the West Virginia Native Plant Society WV Nongame Wildlife Program.

Elderberries for Home Gardens, Ontario Ministery of Agriculture and Food.

Elderberries, Sambucus, spp. Minor Fruits, Department of Horticulture, Cornell University.

Elderberries. in Fruit Production for the Home Gardener: A Comprehensive Guide. Penn State Cooperative Extension.

Elderberry longhorn (Long-Horned Beetles, Family Cerambycidae, Desmocerus palliatus).

Minor Fruits and Nuts In Georgia, Bulletin 992, Revised September, 1999.

Minor Small Fruit Crops for New Mexico Gardens, George W. Dickerson, Extension Horticulture Specialist, New Mexico State University. [In .pdf format]

Pest Diagnostic Clinic - The Elder Borer (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), Laboratory Services Division, University of Guelph.

Planning Your Fruit Garden, by Frank Morrison, Extension Horticulturist, Kansas State University. [In .pdf format]

Sambucus canadensis--Elderberry, Michigan State University Extension Ornamental Plants.

Sambucus as a poisonous plant, North Carolina State University.

Statistik Austria - Agriculture, forestry, and fruit website. Elderberry data is available for years 2008, 2009 and 2010 in tabular format.
 

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Books, Documents, & Pamphlets

Bailey, L. H. Sketch of the Evolution of our Native Fruits. New York, The Macmillan company; London, Macmillan & Co., ltd., 1898.

Bolli, Richard. Revision of the genus Sambucus. Dissertationes botanicae, Bd. 223. Berlin: J. Cramer, 1994.

Brassard, N., C.  Richer and D. Charlebois. Micropropagation of elderberry (Sambucus nigra ssp canadensis).  Poster, International Association for Plant Tissue and Biotechnology meeting, Truro, Nova Scotia, Canadaa (2-5 August). 2004.

Chia, C.L.  (1975).  A Chromosome and Thin-layer Chromatographic Study of the Genus Sambucus L.  PhD dissertation, Cornell University, USA.

Craig, D. L. Elderberry Culture in Eastern Canada. Information Services, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa K1A 0C7, 1978.

Craighead, F. C. "Desmocerus palliates." Insect Enemies of Eastern Forests. MP657. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1950. 244-245.

Drooz, A. T. ed. Insects of Eastern Forests. Misc. Publ. 1426. Washington, DC: USDA Forest Service, 1989.

Martin, Chester O. and Sarah P. Mott. American elder (Sambucus canadensis): Section 7.5.7, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Wildlife Resources Management Manual. Vicksburg, Miss. : U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, 1997-98. 18p. [in .pdf format]

Ritter, C. M. and G. W. McKee. Elderberry: History, Classification, and Culture. Bull. 709. Pennsylvania State University Agriculture Experiment Station, 1964.

Ritter, C. M. Responses of Cultivated Elderberry Varieties to Fertilizer and Mulch Treatments Pennsylvania State University Agriculture Experiment Station, 1958.

Schopmeyer, C S. Seeds of Woody Plants in the United States. Agriculture handbook (United States. Dept. of Agriculture) no. 450. Washington: Forest Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1974.

Way, Roger D. Elderberry Culture in New York State. New York's Food and Life Sciences Bulletin No. 91. Geneva, NY: New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, 1981. [Article in .pdf format]

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Articles and Book Chapters

Anonymous. 2008. Certification scheme for Sambucus. Bulletin OEPP 38 (1):19-24.

Atkinson, M.D and E. Atkinson. "Sambucus nigra L."  The Journal of Ecology 90.5 (2002): 895-923.

Bernier-Leduc, Marjolaine, Anne Vanasse, Alain Olivier, Daniel Bussieres, and Charles Maisonneuve. 2009. Avian fauna in windbreaks integrating shrubs that produce non-timber forest products. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment 131 (1-2, Sp. Iss. SI):16-24.

Berry, Edward W. 1933. New occurrences of Pleistocene plants in the District of Columbia. Jour Washington Acad Sci 23 ((1)):1-25.

Bridle, P., and C. Garcia-Viguera. 1996. A simple technique for the detection of red wine adulteration with elderberry pigments. Food Chemistry: 55 (2) 111-113 55 (2):111-113.

Bowers, M.D., K. Boockvar and S.K. Collinge. "Iridoid glycosides of Chelone glabra (Scrophulariaceae) and their sequestration by larvae of a sawfly, Tenthredo grandis (Tenthredinidae)." Journal of Chemical Ecology 19 (1993): 815-823.

Buriff, C. R. and G. W. Still. "Seasonal activity of adult elder shoot borer as indicated by blacklight traps." [Achatodes Zeae, Elderberry]. Journal of Economic Entomology 65.4 (1972): 1201-1202.

Buhrmester, Rex A., John E. Ebinger, and David S. Seigler. 2000. Sambunigrin and cyanogenic variability in populations of Sambucus canadensis L. (Caprifoliaceae). Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 28 (7):689-695.

Byers, Patrick L., Andrew L. Thomas, and Margaret Millican. 2010. 'Wyldewood' Elderberry. Hortscience 45 (2):312-313.

Byers, P.L. and A.L. Thomas. Elderberry research and production in Missouri. Proceedings Missouri Small Fruit and Vegetable Conference. 25 (2005): 91-97.

Charlebois, D. "Elderberry as a medicinal plant." In: Janick, J. and A. Whipkey (eds.).  Issues in New Crops and New Uses.  ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA, 2007. 284-292.

Charlebois, D., Byers, P. L., Finn, C. E., et al. Elderberry: botany, horticulture, potential. Horticultural Reviews. 37(2010): 213-280.

Chia, C. L. 1975. A chromosome and thin-layer chromatographic study of the genus Sambucus L. Dissertation Abstracts International, B 36 (4):1565B.

Childers, N., Justin R. Morris, G. Steven Sibbett. Modern Fruit Science: Orchard and Small Fruit Culture. Gainesville, FL: Horticultural Publications, 1995. 353-354.

Clarke, J. B., and K. R. Tobutt. 2006. Development of microsatellite primers and two multiplex polymerase chain reactions for the common elder (Sambucus nigra). Molecular Ecology Notes 6 (2):453-455.

Cook, Melville T. 1949. Species of Synchytrium in Louisiana. V. A new species on Sambucus on Sambucus canadensis. Mycologia 41 ((1)):24-27.

Curtis, O. F., Jr. 1980. Weed control in elderberries with simazine. Paper read at Proceedings of the Northeastern Weed Science Society, 1980.

Dadak, M., F. Malik, G. Greif, and A. Silhakova. 1984. Method for the production of colouring matter from the common elder.

Darrow, G.M. "Minor temperate fruits."  In: Janick , J. and J.N. Moore (eds).  Advances in Fruit Breeding.  Purdue University Press, West Lafayette, IN, 1975. 271-273.

Davis, Donald D. 2007. Injury to plants within the Seney National Wildlife Refuge in northern Michigan. Northeastern Naturalist 14 (3):415-424.

Davis, Opal Hart. 1927. Germination and early growth of Cornus fiorida, Sambucus canadensis, and Berberis thunbergii. Bot Gaz 84 (3):225-263.

Day, Richard, and Jane Franklin. 1946. Plant carbonic anhydrase. Science 104 ((2703)):363-365.

Debnath, Samir C. Bioreactors and molecular analysis in berry crop micropropagation - A review. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 91.1 (2011): 147-157.

Doney, Charles. 1945. Shrubs for special uses. Plants and Gardens 1 ((1)):18-51.

Donoghue, M.J., Bell, C.D. and Winkworth, R.C. The evolution of reproductive characters in Dipsacales. International Journal of Plant Sciences, 164.5: Supplement: Flowers: Diversity, Development, and Evolution (Sep., 2003): pp. S453-S464

Drabek, J., M. Jaluvkova, and I. Frebort. 2007. Quantitative PCR determination of elderberries (Sambucus nigra), an illegal additive to wine. Chemicke Listy: 101 (7) 550-555 101 (7):550-555.

Eaton, E.L., Aalders, L.E. Aalders, and Hall, I.VV. Hall. "Hybrids of an interspecific cross of elder." Proceedings of the American Society for Horticultural Science 73 (1959): 145-146.

"Elderberry varieties." Fruit Varieties Journal 20.3 (1966): 46.

Eriksson, T. and M.J. Donoghue. "Phylogenetic relationships of Sambucus and Adoxa (Adoxoideae, Adoxaceae) based on nuclear ribosomal ITS sequences and preliminary morphological data." Systematic Botany 22.3 (1997): 555-573. 

Finn, Chad E., Andrew L. Thomas, Patrick L. Byers, and Sedat Serce. 2008. Evaluation of American (Sambucus canadensis) and European (S. nigra) elderberry genotypes grown in diverse environments and implications for cultivar development. Hortscience 43 (5):1385-1391.

Finn, C. "Elderberry (Sambucus spp.)."  In Janick, J. and R.E. Paull (eds.).  The Encyclopedia of Fruits and Nuts.  Oxford University Press USA, New York, NY, 2007.

Foster, Richard D., and Paul R. Wetzel. 2005. Invading monotypic stands of Phalaris arundinacea: A test of fire, herbicide, and woody and herbaceous native plant groups. Restoration Ecology 13 (2):318-324.

Fowles, G. W. A. 1976. Lead content of roadside fruits and berries. Food Chemistry: 1 (1) 33-38 1 (1):33-38.

Frost, S.W. "A Preliminary Study of North American Insects Associated with Elderberry Flowers." Florida Entomologist 62.4 (1979): 341-355. [Article in .pdf format]

Frost, S.W. "Insects Associated with the Extrafloral Nectaries of Elderberry [Sambucus]." Florida Entomologist 60.3 (1977): 186. [Article in .pdf format]

Gottfried, R. 1993. Designer drinks. Elderberry flower extract. Food Marketing & Technology: 7 (3) 9-10 7 (3):9-10.

Grauer, John. "Elderberries on Long Island" Pomona 23.1 (1990): 68.

Guilmette, M., C. Richer, J. A. Rioux, and D. Charlebois. 2007. Effect of additional pollen on the fruit production of Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis (L.) R. Bolli. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 87 (3):531-536.

Hartmanova, L., V. Ranc, B. Papouskova, P. Bednar, V. Havlicek, and K. Lemr. 2010. Fast profiling of anthocyanins in wine by desorption nano-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A: 1217 (25, Mass Spectrometry: Innovation and Application. Part VI) 4223-4228 1217 (25, Mass Spectrometry: Innovation and Application. Part VI):4223-4228.

Hayes, Bernie. "Report on elderberries" Pomona 17.4 (1984): 252.

Hayes, Bernie. "Culture of the elderberry" Pomona 20.1 (1987): 33.

Hayes, Bernie. "Propagating the elderberry" Pomona 20.4 (1987): 29.

Hayes, Bernie. "More on the Cascades Mountains elderberry" Pomona 21.2 (1988): 18.

Hayes, Bernie E. "Eastern canadensis elderberry fails to germinate" Pomona 21.4 (1988): 54.

Hidayati, S. N., J. M. Baskin, and C. C. Baskin. 2000. Morphophysiological dormancy in seeds of two North American and one Eurasian species of Sambucus (Caprifoliaceae) with underdeveloped spatulate embryos. American Journal of Botany 87 (11):1669-1678.

Hidayati, Siti N., Jerry M. Baskin, and Carol C. Baskin. 2000. Morphophysiological dormancy in seeds of two North American and one Eurasian species of Sambucus (Caprifoliaceae) with underdeveloped spatulate embryos. American Journal of Botany 87 (11):1669-1678.

Hill, R G. "Elderberry Evaluation Studies." Ohio Agricultural Research Development Center Research Summary (1969): 20-22.

Hill, R G. "Performance of Elderberry Cultivars." Ohio Agricultural Research Development Center Research(1970): 39-42.

Hounsell, R. W. 1968. Cytological studies in Sambucus. Canadian Journal of Genetics and Cytology 10:235-47.

Inami, Osamu, Itaru Tamura, Hiroe Kikuzaki, and Nobuji Nakatani. 1996. Stability of anthocyanins of Sambucus canadensis and Sambucus nigra. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 44 (10):3090-3096.

Inoue, T., and K. Sato. 1975. Triterpenoids of Sambucus nigra and S. canadensis. Phytochemistry 14 (8):1871-1872.

Johansen, O. P., M. Andersen, W. Nerdal, and D. W. Aksnes. 1991. Cyanidin 3- 6-(p-coumaroyl)-2-(xylosyl)-glucoside -5-glucoside and other anthocyanins from fruits of Sambucus canadensis. Phytochemistry 30 (12):4137-4141.

Jones, A. T. 1972. Purification and properties of Elderberry latent virus, one of four sap-transmissible viruses obtained from American Elder (Sambucus canadensis L.). Annals of Applied Biology 70 (1):49-58.

Repeated Author. 1974. Elderberry latent virus, CMI/AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses.

Jones, A. T., and A. F. Murant. 1971. Serological relationship between Cherry leaf roll, Elm mosaic and golden Elderberry viruses. Annals of Applied Biology 69 (1):11-15.

Kaack, K.  "New varieties of elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.)."  Tidsskrift for planteavl. 93 (1989): 59-65.

Kaack, K. "Sampo' and 'Samdal', Elderberry Cultivars for Juice Concentrates." Fruit Varieties Journal 51.1 (1997): 28.

Kaack, K., X. C. Frette, L.P. Christensen, A.K Landbo, and A.S. Meyer.  (2008).  "Selection of elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) genotypes best suited for the preparation of juice."  European Food Research Technology. 226 (2008): 843-855.
Keeton, W. S. 2008. Evaluation of tree seedling mortality and protective strategies in riparian forest restoration. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry 25 (3):117-123.

Keeton, William S. 2008. Evaluation of tree seedling mortality and protective strategies in riparian forest restoration. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry 25 (3):117-123.

Kline, L. J., D. D. Davis, J. M. Skelly, J. E. Savage, and J. Ferdinand. 2008. Ozone sensitivity of 28 plant selections exposed to ozone under controlled conditions. Northeastern Naturalist 15 (1):57-66.

Koncalova, M.N., J. Hrib, and D. Jicinska.  (1983).  "The embryology of the Sambucus species and hybrids."  In: Erdelska, O. (ed.). Fertilization and Embryogenesis in Ovulated Plants (Proceedings of the VII International Cytoembryological Symposium). Veda, Bratislava, Czechoslovakia, pp. 43-47.

Lee, J. and  C.E. Finn. "Anthocyanins and other polyphenolics in American elderberry (Sambucus canadensis) and European elderberry (S. nigra) cultivars." Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 87.14 (2007): 2665-2675.

Lepofsky, D., N. J. Turner, and H. V. Kuhnlein. 1985. Determining the availability of traditional wild plant foods: an example of Nuxalk foods, Bella Coola, British Columbia. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 16 (3):223-241.

Lin, L. Z., and J. M. Harnly. 2007. A screening method for the identification of glycosylated flavonoids and other phenolic compounds using a standard analytical approach for all plant materials. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55 (4):1084-1096.

Lin, Long-Ze, and James M. Harnly. 2007. A screening method for the identification of glycosylated flavonoids and other phenolic compounds using a standard analytical approach for all plant materials. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55 (4):1084-1096.

Long, Jeremy D., Geoffrey C. Trussell, and Ted Elliman. 2009. Linking invasions and biogeography: Isolation differentially affects exotic and native plant diversity. Ecology (Washington D C) 90 (4):863-868.

McKay, Steven A. Demand Increasing for Aronia and Elderberry in North America New York Fruit Quarterly 9.3 (2001): 2-3.

Martin, G. E., J. G. Sullo, and R. L. Schoeneman. 1971. Determination of fixed acids in commercial wines by gas-liquid chromatography. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry: 19 (5) 995-998 19 (5):995-998.

Mikova, K., L. Havlikova, J. Velisek, I. Viden, and F. Pudil. 1984. Neutral flavour components of elderberries and elderberry products. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und -Technologie: 17 (6) 311-313 17 (6):311-313.

Milbury, Paul E., Guohua Cao, Ronald L. Prior, and Jeffrey Blumberg. "Bioavailability of Elderberry Anthocyanins." Mechanisms of Ageing and Development 123 (2002): 997-1006.

Mollerova, J. 2005. Notes on invasive and expansive trees and shrubs. Journal of Forest Science 51 (Special issue):19-23.

Nakatani, N., H. Kikuzaki, J. Hikida, M. Ohba, O. Inami, and I. Tamura. 1995. Acylated anthocyanins from fruits of Sambucus canadensis. Phytochemistry 38 (3):755-757.

No, H. K., D. S. Kim, and T. J. Yu. 1980. Studies on the production of elderberry wine. Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology: 12 (4) 242-253 12 (4):242-253.

Ourecky, Donald K. 1966. Chromosome morphology in Sambucus canadensis var. maxima Sch., the American elderberry. Can J Genet Cytol 8 ((2)):188-191.

Ourecky Donald K. "Chromosome morphology in the genus Sambucus."  American Journal of Botany 57.3 (1970): 239-244.

Ozgen, M., J. C. Scheerens, R. N. Reese, and R. A. Miller. 2010. Total phenolic, anthocyanin contents and antioxidant capacity of selected elderberry (Sambucus canadensis L.) accessions. Pharmacognosy Magazine 6 (23):198-203.

Park, K. S. 1978. Studies on the rooting ability of cuttings in elderberry (Sambucus canadensis). Journal of the Korean Forestry Society (40):43-50.

-- 1984. Studies on the nutritional value of elderberry (Sambucus canadensis) fruits. Journal of Korean Forestry Society (67):42-49.

Payne, J. A., K. D. Coder, D. L. Horton, S. C. Myers, and N. Weatherly, Jr. 1990. Neglected native fruit trees and shrubs, 81st annual report of the Northern Nut Growers' Association.

Pogorzelski, E. "Studies on the Formation of Histamine in Must and Wines from Elderberry Fruit." Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 60.2 (1992): 239-244.

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Articles and Chapters (cont.)

Saller, Walter, and Christine de Stefani. 1960. Addition of elderberries to the grape must. Weinberg U Keller 7:45-49.

Sansdrap, A. 2000. The cultivation of elder. Fruit Belge 68 (486):130-132.

Schmitzer, V., R. Veberic, A. Slatnar, and F. Stampar. 2010. Elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) wine: a product rich in health promoting compounds. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry: 58 (18) 10143-10146 58 (18):10143-10146.

Schmitzer, Valentina, Robert Veberic, Ana Slatnar, and Franc Stampar. 2010. Elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) Wine: A Product Rich in Health Promoting Compounds. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 58 (18):10143-10146.

Schuette, H. A., H. A. Vogel, and James A. Bain. 1943. The saturated fatty acids of elderberry seed oil. Oil and Soap 20 ((3)):46.

Seeram, N. P., R. A. Momin, M. G. Nair, and L. D. Bourquin. 2001. Cyclooxygenase inhibitory and antioxidant cyanidin glycosides in cherries and berries. Phytomedicine (Jena) 8 (5):362-369.

Shibuya, N., K. Tazaki, Z. W. Song, G. E. Tarr, I. J. Goldstein, and W. J. Peumans. 1989. A comparative study of bark lectins from three elderberry (Sambucus) species. Journal of Biochemistry (Tokyo) 106 (6):1098-1103.

Seip, Cynthia Donne. "Elderberries (verse)" Pomona 32.3 (1999): 27.

Silver, J. C. 1933. Biology and morphology of the spindle worm, or elder borer. U S Dept Agric Tech Bull 345:1-20.

Skirvin, Robert M. and Alan Otterbacher. "Elderberry Cultivar Performance in Illinois." Fruit Varieties Journal 31.1 (1977): 7-10.

Slate, George L. Minor fruits. National Horticultural Magazine. 34 (1955): 139-149.

Slate, 1951. Fruits of minor importance. Plants and Gardens 7 ((3)):202-204.

Stang, E. J. "Elderberry, etc." Gene J. Galletta and David G. Himelrick, Eds. Small Fruit Crop Management. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1990. 363-381, 363-370.

Stang, E J. "Minor Fruits (Amelanchier, Elderberry, Edible Honeysuckle)." Northern Nut Growers Association Annual Report (1972): 100-102.

Thole, Julie M., Tristan F. Burns Kraft, Lilly Ann Sueiro, Young-Hwa Kang, Joell J. Gills, Muriel Cuendet, John M. Pezzuto, David S. Seigler, and Mary Ann Lila. 2006. A comparative evaluation of the anticancer properties of European and American elderberry fruits. Journal of Medicinal Food 9 (4):498-504.

Thomas, A. L., Byers, P. L., Ellersieck, M. R. Productivity and characteristics of American elderberry in response to various pruning methods. HortScience. 44.3(2009):671-677.

Thomas, A.L., P.L. Byers, C.E. Finn, Y.-C. Chen, G.E. Rottinghaus, A.M. Malone and W.L. Applequist. "Occurrence of rutin and chlorogenic acid in elderberry leaf, flower, and stem in response to genotype, environment, and season." XXVII International Horticultural Congress - IHC 2006: International Symposium on Plants as Food and Medicine: The Utilization and Development of Horticultural Plants for Human Health. Acta Hort. 765 (2008): 197-206.

Uyemoto, J K., R. M. Gilmer, and E. Williams. "SAP-Transmissible Viruses of Elderberry in New York." Plant Disease Reporter 55.10 (1971): 913-916.

Vasantha Rupasinghe, H. P., and S. Clegg. 2007. Total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content, mineral elements, and histamine concentrations in wines of different fruit sources. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis: 20 (2) 133-137 20 (2):133-137.

Way, R.D. Cultivated elderberries. Farm Research 23.3 (1957): [15 pages].

Way, Roger D. 1965. Inheritance of the cutleaf character in elderberry. Proc Amer Soc Hort Sci 86:329-331.

Westwood, M. N. Temperate Zone Pomology, 3rd. Portland, OR: Timber Press, 1993. 109-110.

Wu, Xianli, Guohua Cao, and Ronald L. Prior. "Absorption and Metabolism of Anthocyanins in Elderly Women after Consumption of Elderberry or Blueberry." Journal of Nutrition 132.7 (2002): 1865-1871.

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